James Stewart Sr. of Rockland manor
James was born in 1706, in County Tyrone, Ireland. He espoused the cause of Prince Charles, and fought at the battle of Culloden on April 16, 1746, The Biography of Elder Rev. George W. Stewart, held in private collection.
Prince Charles's situation had now deteriorated to the point of collapse. His war chest was empty; his men had no pay; supplies were gone; worst of all, he and his field commander, Lord George Murray, were no longer on speaking terms. He and his troops had been on a long line of retreat for weeks from Cumberland's much larger army, toward Inverness. Most of his soldiers had not eaten for two days. On the sixteenth, the sorry ragtag force reached Culloden House, overlooking Drummossie Moor, the home of Duncan Forbes. Charles's officers,were according to one eyewitness "sullen and dejected”. They lay down to sleep in the deserted house, "some on beds, others on tables, Chairs, and on the floors." The Jacobites had drained Forbes's private supply of sixty hogsheads of claret on an earlier visit: the prince, weak from a recent bout with pneumonia, had to be content with a dram of whiskey and some bread. With Cumberland close on his heels, the Prince decided that the only way to reverse his fortune was by offering battle.
The next day, as the clans and other Jacobites contingents wearily drew up their line of battle, Cumberland's army marched onto the field, With flags, drums, and the squeal of Campbell pipes. His army outnumbered Prince Charles's by two to one. Three of his fifteen regular battalions were Scottish, in addition to Lord Loudun's regiment of Highland volunteers and Campbell's clansmen. As rank after rank of redcoats moved slowly but inexorably into position—the two armies were only five hundred yards apart, the hearts of the Jacobites commanders sank. Prince Charlie's optimism faded, and for the first time, he "began to consider his situation desperate”.
Cumberland opened the battle with an artillery barrage that pounded the Jacobites line for half an hour, killing, wounding, or scattering nearly a third of Charles's effectives. Charles narrowly escaped death when a solid shot decapitated the groom holding his horse. Meanwhile, a contingent of Campbells had seized the low stone fence that was supposed to secure the Jacobites right, and began to pour a deadly fire into their flank. Charles's troops still had not fired a shot, and yet the battle had been largely decided.
However, the clansmen did not realize this. At last, maddened beyond endurance by the shelling, the Mackintoshes, who held die center of the prince's line, could no longer be held back and charged. Without waiting for orders, Cameron of Lochiel, sword and pistol in hand, led his "sons of die hound," as the Camerons call themselves, after them.
Then the rest of Clan Chattan, Mackintosh, MacGillivray, and MacBean, surged behind them, coming up "very boldly and fast all in a cloud together, sword in hand," "like wildcats," said one soldier. The British laid a withering fire into them as they came on, forcing the charging Highlanders to swerve to the right, as if to evade the hailstorm of lead and shot. "Making a dreadful huzzah, and even crying” Run, ye dogs!” they broke onto the British line.
It was vicious hand-to-hand combat, with the clansmen blindly hacking and thrusting as the choking gun smoke closed around them. "It was dreadful to see the enemies' swords circling in the air as they were raised from the strokes," said one eyewitness, "and no less to see the officers in the army, some cutting with their swords, other pushing with their spontoons, the sergeants running their halberds into the throats of the opponents, the men ramming their fixed bayonets up to the sockets.”
The British fire continued undiminished. The smoke became so thick that the Highlanders had to feel rather than see their way to the enemy. Clansmen were shot down in heaps three or four deep as they climbed over the bodies of cousins and brothers and "hacked at the muskets with such fury that far down the line men could hear the iron clang of sword on barrel”. Those who were not mowed down by musket fire and grapeshot died on the points of the British's' bayonets. "No one that attacked us, escaped alive," said one of Munro's officers afterwards, "for we gave no quarter, nor would accept any”.
It ended only when the clansmen could no longer stand up to the slaughter. First in ones and twos, then in clumps of ten or a dozen, they broke off and headed to the rear. Some, "in their fury and despair, threw stones for at least a minute or two, before they're total rout began." Now the Campbells rose up, tearing down the stone wall and shouting "Cruachan!" as they fell on their ancient foes. Within minutes the Jacobites center and right turned and ran. The MacDonalds, holding down the left flank, soon followed.
Some chieftains refused to give up. MacDonnell of Keppoch cried out, "Oh my God, has it come to this, that the children of my tribe have forsaken me!" and charged sword in hand, toward the enemy. He fell when a ball struck him in the arm, just as his brother Donald was shot down at the head of his company. Keppoch struggled on and took a second wound before dropping to the ground in front of the advancing line of British grenadiers. James Macdonald of Kilchonat tried to help him up, when another bullet hit the chief in the back. Kilchonat left him for dead and fled. But Keppoch was not dead, and when his natural son Angus Ban found him, he was unable to speak but still breathing. Angus and some of his soldiers (he had single-handedly rallied what was left of his father's regiment and led them off the field) managed to carry Keppoch to a small bothy filled with wounded and dying MacDonnells. There the old chieftain, who had once boasted of having five hundred warriors at his disposal, expired. The deaths among the Clan leadership were heavy.
The British at Culloden behaved monstrously, in violation of all the accepted conventions of warfare at the time, and Cumberland himself set the poorest example. When riding across the battlefield, he came upon the twenty-year-old colonel of the Fraser regiment, Charles Fraser of Inverallochy, standing wounded and bloody in front of him. Cumberland asked him to whom he belonged. "To the Prince," Fraser replied. Furious, Cumberland turned to an officer, Major James Wolfe, and ordered him to shoot the boy on the spot. To his credit, Wolfe refused to obey the order, and offered to resign his commission. Instead, Cumberland gave a signal to a passing soldier, who raised his musket and shot Eraser through the head.
Cumberland did show great solicitude for his own troops, giving twelve guineas for every wounded man, and ordered up rum, brandy, Biscuit, and cheese for their provision. He praised "my brave Campbells" and the Scots of Munro's regiment. And there was no mercy for the rebels, either on the battlefield or afterwards. For two days, the wounded were left unattended on the field, with sentinels on guard to prevent anyone from helping them. Soldiers went from house to house in the area, rounding up rebel stragglers and executing them by the dozens. The hut in which McDonnell of Keppoch had died was set on fire, consuming his body and those of his followers, those still alive screaming horribly until they were "scorched to death in a most miserable, mangled way." A nearby hut containing 18 clansmen was also put to the torch.
Cumberland's cavalry pursued the retreating army all along theInverness road, riding down and killing everyone, rebel or not, whom they met. Afterwards one eyewitness came upon a horrific scene, "a woman striped and laid in a very indecent posture, and some of the other sex with their privates placed in their hands." At King's Milns, close to Inverness, he found a twelve-year-old boy, "his head cloven to his teeth." A Mrs. Robertson, widow of the late Laird of Lees at Inshes, came home after the battle to find sixteen dead men in front of her door; all of them murdered by passing dragoons. She summoned her terrified servants and told them to give the clansmen a proper burial.
The atrocities redoubled when Cumberland's forces marched across the Great Glen and into the home territories of the rebel clans, in search of the fugitive prince. All summer and autumn the harrying continued, and whiles hundreds were killed outright, hundreds more died during the severe winter of 1746-47, or died in prison. According to John Prebble, at any given time there were more than 3,400 Jacobite prisoners being held in jails in England and Scotland, or on transports at Inverness and Tilbury. Many had been arrested for being seen "to drink the Pretender's health" or "known to wish the Rebels well." What served, as a radical-chic gesture at Tory Oxford was now the equivalent of a death sentence in the post Culloden Highlands.
Those in the transports suffered worst. A prisoner on the Alexander and James, its hold crammed with prisoners being taken to London for trial and execution, remembered: "They'd take a rope and tie about the poor sicks west, then they would haul them up by their tackle and plunge them into the sea, as they said to drown the vermin; but they took special care to drown both together. Then they'd haul them up on deck and tie a stone about the legs and overboard with them." He added, "I have seen six or seven examples of this in a day.”
It was after this battle that James Sr. fled to America. And On May 13, 1760 James bought a tract of 94 acres in Brandywine hundred, new castle County, Delaware. For which He paid the Pennsylvania Land Company £106. The land was located adjacent to his Brother Samuels property, along the Brandywine River and about a mile south of the Pennsylvania border. The witnesses to this transaction were his brother Samuel Stewart and John Sapler. James and Nicholas Robinson were executors of the will of his Brother Samuel Stewart, dated 31, July, he lived the remainder of his life as a farmer in Brandywine Hundred.He also served as a private during the revolutionary war and was taken prisoner by the British while they lay at Wilmington. The following Account is taken from the Delaware Achieves Revolutionary War Vol,#3, page, 1308,
Affidavit of William Wood: New Castle County (sic), “person all appeared before me George Craghead Esq. one of the justices of the peace for said county, William wood of Brandywine hundred in said county and being qualified according to law, doth dispose and say that Thomas Smith of Brandywine hundred in said county, black smith, was in company with this desponant, Joseph Day, Samuel Kennedy and others, in the house of said Joseph Day, in said Brandywine hundred on a Sunday when the English lay at Wilmington, when he said, he had never informed on any person, except James Stewart of said hundred and he said Smith, had informed of him, and that because Stewart had made himself so busy informing of him, that as he said Smith, was at his own place he saw said Smith, going through corn patch that he pointed with his finger to Stewart and Ask an English officer, present, if he saw him, the officer replied yes, a horseman went after him and soon brought the said Stewart in.
And as this deponant was passing passed Smith’s shop, he saw that Smith had just knocked down a beff, this deponant asked him if he was for the market, Smith said he was, that it was one he had gotten for his winter beff, that he had about 18 or 20 pounds of this continental money, but could get nothing for it, and that he said Smith, would sell said beff to get some other sort of money that he might get something for his family, and further saith not."
Sworn the 30th day of March 1779 before George Craghead, William wood.
James made his will on the October 19, 1787 with John Smith and James Smith as witnesses and it was proved on July 5, 1788. He willed that all of his personal property be sold, total sum of £1000, New Castle County, Delaware Wills. He left all of his real estate to his son James Stewart. He married Isabella about the year 1760.
He was the father of…
I. James Stewart. Born in the year 1761.Had issue see below.
II. Samuel Stewart Married Elizabeth Laird. Had issue.
III. William Stewart Born in 1776 married Elizabeth Campbell Feb 16,1832.
IV. Robert Stewart Born in the year 1778.
Source Citation: James Stewart Sr. Biography of G.W. Stewart: held in
private collection. Delaware Archives, Revolutionary War: Vol, 3, Page, 1308, Vol, 2, Page, 757. Delaware Archives, New castle County,
Will book M: 339. Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome H, page 19 LDS record, IGI. records for Samuel & James Stewart sons of James &
Lousie Stewart B.1704-b.1706
Source Citation: James Stewart Sr.
Biography of G.W. Stewart: held in private collection.
Delaware Archives, Revolutionary War: Vol, 3, Page, 1308, Vol, 2, Page, 757.
Delaware Archives, New castle County, Will book M: 339.
Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome H, page 19
LDS record, IGI. records for Samuel & James Stewart sons of James & Lousie Stewart B.1704-b.1706
James was born in 1761 on the farm in Brandywine hundred, new castle County, Delaware. At the age of sixteen he served as a private in the sixth company under Captain John Learnmonts of the Delaware regiment of foot, Commanded by Colonel David hall, Deleware Archives, Vol #2 Page, 812.
On September 11, 1777, He fought in the battle of Brandywine hundred, near Chadds Ford. September 11 began with a heavy fog, which provided cover for the British troops. Washington received contradictory reports about the British troop movements and continued to believe that the main force was moving to attack at Chadds Ford. The British appeared on the Americans' right flank at around 2 p.m. With Hazen's brigades outflanked, Sullivan, Stephen, and Stirling tried to reposition their troops to meet the unexpected British threat to their right flank. But Howe was slow to attack the American troops, which bought time for the Americans to position some of their men on high ground at Birmingham Meeting House, about a mile (2 km) north of Chadds Ford. By 4 p.m., the British attacked, with Stephen's and Stirling's divisions receiving the brunt of the assault, and both lost ground fast. Sullivan attacked a group of Hessian troops trying to outflank Stirling's men near Meeting House Hill and bought some time for most of Stirling's men to withdraw, but returned British fire, forced Sullivan’s men to retreat.
At this point, Washington and Greene arrived with reinforcements to try to hold off the British, who now occupied Meeting House Hill. The remnants of Sullivan's, Stephen's, and Stirling's divisions stopped the pursuing British for nearly an hour but were eventually forced to retreat. The Americans were also forced to leave behind most of their cannon on Meeting House Hill because most of the artillery horses were killed.
Knyphausen, on the east bank of the Brandywine, launched an attack against the weakened American center across Chadds Ford, breaking through Maxwell's and Wayne's divisions and forcing them to retreat and leave behind most of their cannon. Armstrong's militia, having never engaged in the fighting, also decided to retreat from its positions. Further north, Greene sent Colonel Weedon's troops to cover the road just outside the town of Dilworth to hold off the British long enough for the rest of the Continental Army to retreat. Darkness brought the British pursuit to a standstill, which then left Weedon's force to retreat. The defeated Americans were forced to retreat to Chester where most of them arrived at midnight, with some stragglers arriving until morning.
The official British casualty list detailed 587 casualties: 93 killed (8 officers, 7 sergeants and 78 rank and file); 488 wounded (49 officers, 40 sergeants, 4 drummers and 395 rank and file); and 6 rank and file missing unaccounted for. Only 40 of the British Army’s casualties were Hessians Historian Thomas J. McGuire writes that, “American estimates of British losses run as high as 2,000, based on distant observation and sketchy, unreliable reports.”
No casualty return for the American army at Brandywine survives and no figures, official or otherwise, were ever released. Most accounts of the Patriot loss were from the British side. One initial report by a British officer recorded American casualties at over 200 killed, around 750 wounded, and 400 unwounded prisoners taken. A member of General Howe’s staff claimed that 400 rebels were buried on the field by the victors. Another British officer wrote that, “The Enemy had 502 dead in the field”. General Howe’s report to the British Secretary of War, Lord Germain, said that the Americans, “had about 300 men killed, 600 wounded, and near 400 made prisoners.”
The nearest thing to a hard figure from the Patriot side was by Major-General Nathanael Greene, who estimated that Washington’s army had lost between 1,200 and 1,300 men. 350 wounded Americans were taken on September 14 from the British camp at Dilworth to a newly-established hospital at Wilmington. This would suggest that of the “near 400” prisoners reported by Howe, only about 40 had surrendered unwounded. If General Greene’s estimate of the total American loss was accurate, then between 1,160 and 1,260 Americans were killed or wounded in the battle. The British also captured 11 out of 14 of the American artillery guns.
At the age of 80 James and his wife moved to Philadelphia to live with their daughter Margaret, he died there at the age of 82 on April 9 1842 and was buried in the old Presbyterian Church yard. He married Liddy Morton. She was born in the year 1760, in the county of Tyrone, Ireland, she died in 1846.
He was the father of…
I. Alexander Stewart Born on October 31, died in 1840 in Wilmington, Delaware.
II. William Stewart Born on the 15th of April, 1791. He was the Father of Alexander Peter Stewart.
William Stewart born 1791
III. Joseph James Stewart Born 1793. He died in Baltimore, Maryland in the year 1880, had issue.
IV. Robert Stewart Born on 19th Of April, 1796 had issue, See below.
V. Charles Stewart Born September 10, 1797. Died in Van Buren, Arkansas, leaving a daughter Mrs.,JuliaA, Foster.
VI. Jane Stewart married (?)… Dixon went to Ohio.
VII. Margaret Stewart.
VIII. Solomon Stewart mayor of Hernando, Mississippi, unmarried.
IX. Louisa Stewart died October, 1840 in Wilmington, unmarried.
X. Mary Stewart died without children.
XI. Lydia Stewart, Married Henry Morton June 23, 1804 in Deleware.
Source Citation: James Stewart Jr. Year: 1800; Census Place: Brandywine Hundred, New
Castle, Delaware; .Roll: 4; Page: 149; Image: 83. Year: 1820; Census Place: Brandywine Hundred, New
Castle, Delaware; Roll: M33_4; Page: 169; Image: 173. Year: 1840; Census Place: Brandywine hundred, New
Castle, Delaware; Roll: 33; Page: 145. Biography of G.W Stewart held in private collection. Delaware Archives, Revolutionary
War: vol. #1, pages 319,400,401; Vol. #2, Page 812. Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome H, page 19, 20
Source Citation: James Stewart Jr.
Year: 1800; Census Place: Brandywine Hundred, New Castle, Delaware; .Roll: 4; Page: 149; Image: 83.
Year: 1820; Census Place: Brandywine Hundred, New Castle, Delaware; Roll: M33_4; Page: 169; Image: 173.
Year: 1840; Census Place: Brandywine hundred, New Castle, Delaware; Roll: 33; Page: 145.
Biography of G.W Stewart held in private collection.
Delaware Archives, Revolutionary War: vol. #1, pages 319,400,401; Vol. #2, Page 812.
Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome H, page 19, 20
Capt. Robert Stewart
Robert Stewart was born in New Castle County, Delaware on April 19, 1796. He was a Millwright by trade and supported himself and family by honest labor. He was married once and the father of eight children, five boys and three girls, two of whom died in infancy (namely Araminta and Mary.)
He served honorably as a Soldier in the Battle of Baltimore, alongside his brother Joseph James Stewart, in 1814 against the English. The British landed a force of 5,000 troops who marched toward Baltimore and first met heavy resistance at The Battle of North Point which was fought only 3 miles from the city. The city’s defenses, under the command of Major General Samuel Smith, an officer of the Maryland Militia, blunted the British advance, killing the British General Robert Ross. Therefore the British army halted their advance and awaited the results of the sea campaign.
At Fort McHenry, some 1,000 soldiers under the command of Major George Armistead awaited the British naval bombardment. Their defense was augmented by the sinking of a line of American merchant ships at the adjacent entrance to Baltimore Harbor in order to further thwart the passage of British ships.
The attack began on September 13, as the British fleet of some nineteen ships began pounding the fort with Congreve rockets (from rocket vessel HMS Erebus) and mortar shells (from bomb vessels HMS Terror, HMS Volcano, HMS Meteor, HMS Devastation, and HMS Aetna). After an initial exchange of fire, the British fleet withdrew to just beyond the range of Fort McHenry’s cannons and continued to bombard the American redoubts for the next 25 hours. Although 1,500 to 1,800 cannonballs were launched at the fort, damage was light.
After nightfall, Cochrane ordered a landing to be made by small boats to the shore just west of the fort, away from the harbor opening on which the fort’s defense was concentrated. He hoped that the landing party might slip past Fort McHenry and draw Smith’s army away from the main British land assault on the city’s eastern border. Operating in darkness and in foul weather, Armistead's guns opened fire onto the landing party and the diversionary attack failed. On the morning of September 14, the 30 ft (9.1 m) × 42 ft oversized American flag, which had been made a few months before by local flag maker Mary Pickersgill and her 13-old daughter, flew over fort Mchenry.
Brooke had been instructed not to attack the American positions around Baltimore unless he was certain they could be taken. Seeing that Cochrane had failed to subdue the Fort, Brooke withdrew from his positions, and returned to the fleet.
Robert also served in the Missouri Militia under Gov. Boggs against the Mormons at Far West, Caldwell Co., Mo and also fought them in October and November of 1838. He served under Col. Doniphan in the Mexican war (as a Teamster) to Santa Fe in 1846 and also in the Union Home Guards in 1861-5 during the Great Rebellion, the Civil War. As this branch of the Stewart family took the side of the Government, and against the Southern Confederacy. The old father, Robert, was very radical. Four brothers and a brother-in-law enlisted in the Union Army; left their families and went to fight for the preservation of the one great nation; and for our Republican Liberties. On the Confederate side, his nephew, Gen. Alexander Peter Stewart, fought along with his sons. It was a war that was truly brother against brother. Robert lost 2 sons to the war, John Harris Stewart and James Ireland Stewart.
Robert moved to Tennessee with his older brother William in 1820 and was married there to Amy K. Ireland, he and Amy left Tennessee in 1834 and went to Shawnee-town, Illinois where they remained for about two years. From there they moved to their new home near Richmond, Ray County, Missouri in the spring of 1837. The next year they moved ten miles north of Richmond, and remained there (except 1844-5) for about eighteen years.
The country then was entirely new and they were just pioneers in the Western Country. It was just as God had made it, lovely and beautiful beyond description. Low, beautiful, rich valleys of virgin soil, all covered with waving wild grass, and decorated with a profusion of wild flowers of every hue and shape. It was indeed a paradise to look at. The hills were majestic in height and their brows, covered with ledges of rock and abounding innumerous caves. Then the flowing stream and falling cataract, connected with a system of small lakes, (which the children named after the great Canada lakes.) All helped to make picturesque and variegated scenery seldom surpassed in romantic and sublime beauty.
One streamlet flowed out of a cave at the top of the hill and ran all of the way down to the big branch; but, alas! It soon went dry; for it was only a wet weather stream. But the spring in the low valley sprang up forever and never ceased for wet or dry weather.
The cabin in which they built and lived stood at the foot of a high hill which arose on the west and obscured the rays of the setting sun for an hour before they bade farewell to the distant hill-tops. The cabin was built of round logs and the cracks were daubed with mud; the roof was made of clap-boards held on with weight poles; the loft was Lin bark laid on round poles for joists; the floor was made of puncheons or split logs; the chimney was built of sticks and clay, with stone back wall and jams. (Such a thing as a stove was unknown.) The door shutters were hung on the outside on wooden hinges. One small window was all the light it had.
Robert was a believer in the Bible and Christianity from childhood, (although an unconverted man until later in his life). He was re-generated and baptized in the name of Jesus in 1866, at the age of Seventy years, and put his membership in the Christian Church at Modena, Mo. He lived an exemplary life ever afterward attending upon all of the ordinances and duties of Divine Worship; and enjoying a calm, holy, living faith in Christ even unto death.
Upon his death-bed he said “Tell Louisa (his only daughter) to put on the whole armor of God, that she may be able to stand against the wiles of the Devil.” He then called upon his grand-son to read to him the Twenty-third Psalm, and after drinking in the comfort it gave; he said “I am resigned to the Lord’s will.” And fell asleep, on the first day of September 1871, at the age of Seventy-five years, 4 mo and 12 days.
He was father of…
I. William Alexander Stewart born January 20, 1823 had issue.
II. Araminta Stewart died in infancy.
III. John Harris Stewart born 1828 he died from measles, had issue.
IV. James Ireland Stewart born 1830 died before his father, had issue.
V. George W. Stewart born May 16, 1833 had issue.
VI. Mary Stewart died in infancy.
VII. Charles Holland Stewart born July 25, 1839 had issue.
VIII. Louisa Matilda Stewart born January 22, 1842.
Source Citation: Robert Stewart
Year: 1830; Census Place: Regiment 98, Monroe, Tennessee; Roll: 175; Page: 141.
Year: 1850; Census Place: District 75, Ray, Missouri; Roll: M432_412; Page: 323; Image: 83.
Year: 1860; Census Place: Madison, Mercer, Missouri; Roll: M653_633; Page: 0; Image: 307.
Year: 1870; Census Place: Madison, Mercer, Missouri; Roll: M593_792; Page: 115; Image: 231.
Stewart Clan Magazine, Tome H, page 20, 21, 22